Satiety effects of beta-glucan
Satiety effects of oat beta-glucan

 More viscous fibres such as β-glucan are effective in promoting satiety compared to other soluble fibres (e.g. inulin) that are less viscous which are not increasing satiety even in high dose. 

The soluble fibre (1 → 3)(1 → 4)- β-D-glucan (β-glucan), contained in oats, affects by chemical and physical properties to appetite, especially by their bulking action, increasing viscosity in the gastrointestinal tract. Satiety signals precipitates while viscosity interferes with the peristaltic mixing process in the small intestine to impede digestion and absorption of nutrients. Part of the mechanism is most likely release of cholecystokinin. 

The evidence suggests that oat β-glucan could have a positive effect on perceptions of satiety. It is observed (Pentikäinen et al. 2014) that juice containing added oat bran including 4g β-glucan enhanced satiety more than added oat bran including same amount of β-glucan in biscuits. The most evident enhancement of satiety was observed when β-glucan amount was double (total 8g in juice + biscuit). Enhanced satiety seem to be induced by viscosity development in gastrointestinal conditions. 

It is also found in beverages (Lyly et al. 2009 & 2010), that β-glucan added in beverages increased satiety-related and decreased hunger-related perceptions compared to a beverage without dietary fiber. There were independent effects on satiety perceptions with the dietary fiber content and viscosity of the beverages. However, there was not a linear dose-response relationship between effect on satiety and the amount of dietary fiber. 

In solid foods have been found (Rebello et al. 2016) that fullness increased and hunger reduced more when eating higher viscosity and β-glucan content oatmeal than ready-to-eat breakfast cereal (RTEC). Oatmeal suppresses appetite, increases satiety, and reduces desire to eat, and prospective energy intake compared to the RTEC. 

 

References 

Beck EJ, Tosh SM, Batterham MJ, Tapsell LC, Huang XF. (2009). Oat β-glucan increases postprandial cholecystokinin levels, decreases insulin response and extends subjective satiety in overweight subjects. Mol. Nutr. Food Res 53, 1343-1351. 

Burton-Freeman B. (2000). Dietary fiber and energy regulation. Symposium: dietary Composition and Obesity: do we need to look beyond dietary fat? J. Nutr, American Society for Nutritional Sciences, 272S-275S. 

Hlebowicz J, Darwiche G, Björgell O, Almér LO. (2008). Effect of muesli with 4 g Oat β-glucan on postprandial blood glucose, gastric emptying and satiety in healthy subjects: a randomized crossover trial. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 27, No. 4, 470-475. 

Lyly M, Ohls N, Lähteenmäki L, Salmenkallio-Marttila M, Liukkonen KH, Karhunen L, Poutanen K. (2010). The effect of fibre amount, energy level and viscosity of beverages containing oat fibre supplement on perceived satiety. Food & Nutrition Research 54, 2149. 

Lyly M, Liukkonen KH, Salmenkallio-Marttila M, Karhunen L, Poutanen K, Lähteenmäki L. (2009). Fibre in beverages can enhance perceived satiety. Eur J Nutr 48, 251-258. 

Pentikäinen S, Karhunen L, Flander L, Katina K, Meynier A, Aymard P, Vinoy S, Poutanen K. (2014). Enrichment of biscuits and juice with oat b-glucan enhances postprandial satiety. Appetite 75, 150-156. 

Rebello CJ, O'Neil CE, Greenway FL. (2016). Dietary fiber and satiety: the effects of oats on satiety. Nutr Rev. 74, 131-47. 

Rebello CJ, Johnson WD, Martin CK, Han H, Chu YF, Bordenave N, Van Klinken JW, O’Shea M, Greenway FL. (2016). Instant oatmeal increases satiety and reduces energy intake compared to a ready-to-eat oat-based breakfast cereal: a randomized crossover trial. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 35, 41-49. 

Slavin J, Green H. (2007). Dietary fibre and satiety. British Nutrition Foundation Nutrition Bulletin 32, 32-42. 

Wanders AJ, Van den Borne JJGC, De Graaf C, Hulshof T, Jonathan MC, Kristensen M, Mars M, Schols HA, Feskens EJM. (2011). Effects of dietary fibre on subjective appetite, energy intake and body weight: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. International Association for the Study of Obesity 12, 724-739.